Evolutionary Developmental Biology (Evo-Devo)
Arias, Tatiana , Niederhuth, Chad , Pires, Joseph , Mcsteen, Paula .
Transcriptome exploration, leaf morphology diversity and the domestication of Kale (Brassica oleracea var. viridis).
We aim to identify genes that are responsible for kale leaf shape diversity as well as to understand the developmental changes that took place during the evolution of domestic kale. The highly lobed margins phenotype of kale is reminiscent of the over expression phenotype of knotted1-likehomeobox (knox). We are testing the hypothesis that leaf morphological diversity in kale is due to the over expression of knox genes; the higher the gene expression, the curlier the kale leaves margins will be. We sequenced whole transcriptomes for Kale, Cabbage and the rapid cycling B. oleracea (TO1000). The B. rapa genome was used to assemble transcriptomes. All the differentially expressed genes were found using the program DESeq in R. Arabidopsis annotation tools were used to identify genes involved in development. When comparing cabbage vs. kale transcriptomes there were 5046 genes differentially expressed (p<0.05).TO1000 vs. kale had 4211 differentially expressed genes, while there were 1929that were commonly expressed in both sets of comparisons. Genes related to leaf morphology and auxin transport and synthesis were up regulated in the Kale genome. The comparison of cabbage vs. kale transcriptomes showed that genes involved in reproduction, postembryonic development, and system and organ development were differentially expressed. The TO1000 vs. kale comparison included genes that regulated flowering and the transition between the vegetative and reproductive stage. Developmental genes expressed in common were involved on flower regulation and floral organ formation. Fewer genes were related to leaf morphology narrowing down the list of candidate genes responsible for the Kale morphology. Gene expression (rtPCR and in situ hybridization) ofa short list of candidate genes will be followed during development using a timeline experiment for three kale varieties with diversity in leaf margins and different levels of leaf lobulation. Broader impacts: These studies promote the understanding of the relationship between the phenotype and the genotype using the Brassica oleracea plant model. They will illuminate the effects of form and structure on the evolution of wild and domesticated species. These studies offer new and inexpensive ways to analyze and compare transcriptomes through comparative genomics. They provide an innovative way to understand plant development through genomics. To further the proposed goals an online resource will be available to the scientific community. An “evo-devo” lab that takes advantage of college freshman’s familiarity with the grocery store Brassica oleracea (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, etc) has been implemented.
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1 - University of Missouri, Biological Sciences, 311 Life Sciences Center, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA
2 - University Of Missouri, 371 Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Street, Columbia, MO, 65211-7310, USA
3 - University of Missouri, Biological Sciences, 371 Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Street, Columbia, MO, 65211-7310, USA
Presentation Type: Poster:Posters for Topics
Location: Battelle South/Convention Center
Date: Monday, July 9th, 2012
Time: 5:30 PM